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Disease Info

+ The Zika Virus

  • What is the Zika Virus?

    Zika is a disease caused by Zika virus that is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito.

  • What are the symptoms of the Zika Virus?

    About one in five people infected with Zika virus will have symptoms. This means 80% of people do not even know they are infected! The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon, and people rarely die.

  • How is Zika transmitted?

    Zika is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, the same mosquitoes that spread Chikungunya and dengue. These mosquitoes are aggressive daytime biters and they can also bite at night.

    The Zika Virus is now believed to also be spread sexually. There is not much known yet about the sexual transmission of the virus, so anyone who has travelled to a high risk/infected area, is strongly advised to wear condoms 100% of the time with ALL sexual contact to avoid spreading this virus to others.

  • Who is at risk of being infected?

    Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where Zika virus is found and has not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites.

  • Where is the Zika Virus normally found?

    As of February 1, 2016, local transmission has been identified in at least 25 countries or territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico. Currently, outbreaks are occurring in many countries. Zika virus will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time.

    If traveling, please visit the CDC Travelers' Health site for the most updated travel information.

  • Is the Zika Virus in the US?

    As of February 2, 2016, one case of locally acquired and sexually transmitted Zika virus infection was confirmed in a patient in Texas.

    Cases of the Zika Virus have been reported in returning travelers. Locally transmitted Zika virus has been reported in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and America Samoa.

    With the recent outbreaks, the number of Zika cases among travelers visiting or returning to the United States will likely increase. These imported cases could result in local spread of the virus in some areas of the United States.

    If traveling, please visit the CDC Travelers' Health site for the most updated travel information.

  • I'm going to an infected Zika Virus destination for Spring Break. What do I do?

    Ultimately, you need to decide whether or not you want to travel to an area with reported cases of the Zika Virus or high risk areas. When traveling to countries where Zika virus or other viruses spread by mosquitoes are found, take the following steps:

    • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
    • Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
    • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
    • Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents. When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective.
    • Always follow the product label instructions.
    • Reapply insect repellent as directed.
    • Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.
    • If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen before applying insect repellent.
  • I am pregnant, may be pregnant, or am trying to get pregnant. Will the Zika Virus affect me or my unborn baby?

    Until more is known, CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant:

    • Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Pregnant women who do travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.
    • Women trying to become pregnant or who are thinking about becoming pregnant should consult with their healthcare provider before traveling to these areas and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip.

    Because specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are difficult to determine and likely to change over time, CDC will update this travel notice as information becomes available. Check CDC's Zika Travel Information website frequently for the most up-to-date recommendations.

    In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. The outbreak in Brazil led to reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes.

    For more information about the Zika Virus and pregnancy, please visit the CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/pregnancy/index.html

  • What is the treatment for Zika?

    There is no vaccine or specific medicine to treat Zika virus infections.

    Treat the symptoms:

    • Get plenty of rest.
    • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
    • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
    • Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
  • Is there a vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika?

    No. There is no vaccine to prevent infection or medicine to treat Zika.

  • Should everyone who traveled to an area with Zika be tested for the virus?

    See your healthcare provider if you travelled (this includes if you are pregnant) and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a country where Zika virus cases have been reported. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you traveled.

  • What should I do if I have Zika?

    Treat the symptoms:

    • Get plenty of rest.
    • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
    • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
    • Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Protect others: During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another person through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people. To help prevent others from getting sick, avoid mosquito bites during the first week of illness.

    See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a place where Zika has been reported. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you traveled.

    The Zika Virus is now believed to also be spread sexually. There is not much known yet about the sexual transmission of the virus, so anyone who has travelled to a high risk/infected area, is strongly advised to always wear condoms to avoid spreading this virus to others.

  • Is this a new virus?

    No. Outbreaks of Zika previously have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika virus likely will continue to spread to new areas. In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. Since that time, local transmission has been reported in many other countries and territories.

  • Where can I get additional information and resources?

+ Ebola

Please read this message from Wayne State University president, M. Roy Wilson regarding Ebola.

If you are a WSU student and have travelled to Guinea, Liberia or Sierra Leone and/or have had close contact with someone known to be infected with Ebola within the past 21 days, do not come into the Campus Health Center - call first, 313.577.5041 M-F, 9am-6pm. If you need assistance after hours or on the weekend, call your local Emergency Room.

  • Ebola Basics

    1. Ebola is NOT spread by:
      • Casual Contact
      • Air
      • Water
      • Food Grown Legally in the US
    2. How do you get Ebola?

      Direct contact with:

      • Body fluids of someone who is sick with Ebola (blood, vomit, urine, feces, sweat, semen, spit, etc.)
      • Objects contaminated with the virus (needles, medical equipment)
      • Infected fruit bats or primates
    3. Early Symptoms
      • Fever
      • Headache
      • Diarrhea
      • Vomiting
      • Stomach pain
      • Unexplained bleeding or bruising
      • Muscle pain
    4. When is someone able to spread the disease to others?
      • Ebola only spreads when people are sick. A patient must have active symptom to spread the disease to others.

    *Information from: cdc.gov/ebola

  • What is Campus Health Center doing about Ebola?

    Campus Health Center is monitoring the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa and is following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for infection prevention on college campuses.

  • Am I at risk for Ebola?

    If you haven't been in an Ebola-affected area in West Africa during the last 21 days or had close contact with someone who is sick with Ebola, you are NOT at risk for Ebola.

  • How do I tell if I have Ebola or Flu?

    Seasonal influenza and Ebola virus infection can cause some similar symptoms. However, of these viruses, you are far more likely to have Influenza, or Flu. Influenza is very common. Millions of people are infected, hundreds of thousands are hospitalized and thousands die from flu each year. In the United States, fall and winter is the time for flu. While the exact timing and duration of flu seasons vary, outbreaks often begin in October and can last as late as May. In the United States, there have been two travel-associated cases of Ebola and two locally (in Texas) acquired cases of Ebola among healthcare workers.

  • Where can I get additional information and resources?

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
      800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636

    2. CDC Questions and Answers on Ebola

+ Enterovirus 68

  • Information Coming Soon

+ Gastroenteritis aka “Stomach Flu”

  • Information Coming Soon

+ Influenza aka “The Flu”

  • What are symptoms of the flu?

    The Flu is caused by any one of many Influenza Viruses.

    Signs and symptoms usually come on suddenly, and can include some or all of the following:

    • coughing,
    • sore throat,
    • fever,
    • chills,
    • body aches,
    • headaches,
    • fatigue,
    • runny/stuffy nose.

    Most healthy people who get the flu will recover in a week or two. However, some people will develop life-threatening complications such as pneumonia. The flu can worsen existing health problems like asthma, diabetes and congestive heart failure. Other complications caused by flu include bronchitis, sinus infections and ear infections.

    Resources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/symptoms.htm

  • Is this expected to be another bad flu season?

    Flu seasons are unpredictable year to year. Although epidemics of flu happen every year, the timing, severity, and length of the season varies from one year to another.

    Resources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2014-2015.htm

  • What is the flu shot?

    The flu shot is an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the shoulder muscle. It contains 3-4 seasonal influenza strains. The seasonal flu vaccine protects against 3-4 strains of influenza virus that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season.

  • Where can I get a flu shot?

    The Campus Health Center offers flu shots at no out of pocket cost to all WSU students (even online students). You can get your flu shot at CHC by:

    1. Scheduling a Flu Shot appointment;
    2. Come in with no appointment on a walk in flu shot day;
    3. Come to one of our many outreach walk in clinics around campus; or
    4. Check with your department about a scheduling a special outreach clinic for your group.
  • If there is no charge for the flu shot for WSU students, why is my insurance information collected? What if I don't have insurance?

    There is no out-of-pocket charge to Wayne State students for flu shots. However, we may bill your health insurance for the cost of the flu shot and administration. Students are never charged regardless of insurance coverage.

  • What type of flu vaccine does CHC give?

    For the 2014-2015 flu season, CHC is giving the Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine. This is an intra-muscular injection, usually given in the deltoid (shoulder) muscle. This vaccine will help to protect you from the following 4 strains of influenza that are predicted to be most prevalent this flu season:

    • A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
    • A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus;
    • B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus;
    • B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.
  • What are the side effects of the flu shot?

    Most people who receive the flu shot do not experience problems from it. Mild side effects that may occur from the flu shot are: Soreness, redness, or mild swelling where the shot was given. Some people also experience low grade fever, body aches and/or nausea.

    Life-threatening allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare. If they do occur, it is usually within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot is given.

    Resources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/general.htm

  • Won't the flu shot give me the flu?

    No. The flu shot is made from inactivated (killed) flu virus that stimulates your immune system to create antibodies against 3-4 common strains of influenza. It cannot cause flu in the person who receives it.

    Resources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/misconceptions.htm

  • Will the flu shot prevent me from getting the “stomach flu”, colds and other common winter illness?

    No. There are hundreds of viruses that can cause respiratory illnesses. Flu vaccine protects against 3-4 strains of influenza that are predicted to be prevalent in the upcoming flu season. Illnesses commonly referred to as “Stomach Flu” or gastroenteritis that cause diarrhea, abdominal cramping, nausea and/or vomiting are usually caused by germs that affect the stomach and/or intestines.

    Resources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/coldflu.htm
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/other.htm
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/misconceptions.htm

  • I have more questions! Where else can I get information about the flu and staying healthy?

    Contact the Campus Health Center! (313) 577-5041 or campushealth@wayne.edu

    www.cdc.gov/flu
    www.flu.gov
    http://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/updated/everyday_preventive.pdf

+ Sexually Transmitted Infections

  • Information Coming Soon

+ Tuberculosis

  • What is Tuberculosis (TB)?

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

    TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.

    Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection and TB disease.

  • Why does Wayne State University (WSU) require international students be screened for TB?

    WSU is committed to keeping its students healthy. Many countries have high rates of TB, which is a serious disease that can be highly contagious. TB screening helps to keep you and your fellow students healthy.

    http://fisopsprocs.wayne.edu/policy/09-02.htm

  • When do I have the TB screening done?

    You will have the TB screening within a few days of your arrival at Wayne State University, before you start classes.

    The Office of International Students & Scholars (OISS), English Language Institute (ELI) or Study Abroad departments will either:

    1. arrange for your TB screening and tell you when your appointment is OR
    2. advise you to call CHC to schedule your TB screening appointment
  • Where do I go for my TB screening?

    You will either go to the Campus Health Center (CHC) or another location on WSU's campus for your TB screening.

    If OISS, ELI or Study Abroad makes the arrangements, they will tell you where to go. Usually in this case, students go together in groups for the TB screening.

    If you schedule your TB screening appointment on your own, you will go to CHC for the screening.

  • What should I expect at my TB screening appointment?

    You will receive forms from OISS, ELI or Study Abroad to complete and bring to your TB screening appointment. Someone from one of these departments or CHC will help you complete the forms.

    A nurse from CHC will sit down with you to review your forms and ask you some questions about your health and countries you have lived in and/or visited.

    You will either be given a “waiver” (stating that you do not need the TB blood test) to give to OISS/ELI/Study Abroad OR the nurse will take a small blood sample to test for TB infection.

  • Why do some students have to get a blood test and some students get a “waiver”?

    Students who are from, or have spent more than 30 days, in a country with high TB rates are required to have a blood sample drawn to test for TB infection, since they are more likely to have been exposed to TB at some point in their life.

    Students who have not spent more than 30 days in a country with high TB rates may receive a “waiver”, meaning their chance of having been exposed to TB is very low.

  • How do I prepare for my TB test appointment?

    Eat a healthy breakfast and drink plenty of water the day of your TB screening. Try to drink plenty of water for a few days before your appointment as well. This will ensure that you are well-hydrated, which makes the blood test much easier. Eating a healthy breakfast will help to ensure that you feel well during and after your test.

  • How do I get my blood test results?

    You can pick up your test results at CHC a few days after your blood test. The nurse who draws your blood will tell you exactly when your results will be available for you to pick up.

  • What do my blood test results mean?

    The TB blood test has 3 possible results:

    • NEGATIVE: There is no sign of TB infection. No further follow up is required.
    • BORDERLINE: Results are uncertain; a repeat blood test is required in 4-6 weeks
    • POSITIVE: The TB germ (bacteria) is present, indicating likely TB infection. See below.
  • What IF my blood test is positive?

    The CHC nurse will contact you right away and arrange for you to have a chest x-ray to make sure there is no active TB disease in your lungs. The nurse will ask you some more questions about your health and how you are feeling. If you are having symptoms suggestive of TB disease, you may be asked to submit a sputum specimen. If your chest x-ray and sputum specimen (if required) is normal (no active TB disease found) and you are feeling fine (no signs & symptoms of active TB disease), the nurse will give you a TB clearance so you can continue taking classes. The nurse will talk to you about taking medicine for latent TB infection.

    **Having TB will NOT affect your visa or student status. Students who have TB infection are not discriminated against in any way. WSU must report cases of active TB disease (not latent TB infection) to county health departments for investigation of possible transmission to others. Otherwise, health records at WSU are confidential and cannot be released without patient consent. Your TB test result will not appear on your academic documents.**

  • Can I have my TB test done in my home country, before I arrive at WSU?

    WSU will only accept TB screening performed at WSU's Campus Health Center. If you have had TB testing done recently, bring all documentation with you and the CHC nurse will review it to determine if additional testing is needed.

  • I received the BCG vaccine as a child. Will it interfere with the TB blood test?

    No. The BCG vaccine (given in some countries with high TB rates) will not interfere with the TB blood test (IGRA/T-Spot).

  • Where can I find more information about TB?

    http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm

    http://www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis/en/

+ Vaccine–Preventable Diseases

  • Information Coming Soon


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